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Video Clip Synopsis:
The first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. Sir Mark Oliphant helped to create the bomb, but even though it ended the war he can never reconcile himself to the loss of civilian life.

Duration:
1min 35sec

Sir Marcus Oliphant and The Atomic Bomb consists of excerpts from the program Sir Marcus Oliphant (26 mins), an episode of Australian Biography Series 1 (7 x 26 mins), produced in 1991.

Sir Marcus Oliphant: Sir Marcus Oliphant is a founding father of the Australian National University in Canberra and a former Governor of South Australia. While at Adelaide University in 1927, he was accepted by Cambridge University, where he became part of a team whose task was to split the atom. During World War Two, he developed the centimetre wave radar. After the bomb was used against civilians in Hiroshima, he went on to devote his considerable scientific talent and energies to finding peaceful uses for atomic power.

Australian Biography Series 1: The Australian Biography series profiles some of the most extraordinary Australians of our time. Many have had a major impact on the nation’s cultural, political and social life. All are remarkable and inspiring people who have reached a stage in their lives where they can look back and reflect. Through revealing in-depth interviews, they share their stories - of beginnings and challenges, landmarks and turning points. In so doing, they provide us with an invaluable archival record and a unique perspective on the roads we, as a country, have travelled.

Australian Biography Series 1 is a Film Australia National Interest Program.

Study Module

Curriculum Focus: SOSE/HSIE
Year: 9-10
Strand: Time, continuity and change
Theme: Science Work

Key Concepts

Science; Conflict and compromise; Nuclear weapons

Curriculum Applicability Notes

ACT:Time, continuity and change, High school band
NSW:History, Stage 5, Topic 8
NT:Social systems and structures — Time, continuity and change Band 5, SOC 5.1
Qld:History Years 9 and 10, Time, continuity and change Level 6, TCC6.1
SA:Time, continuity and change, Standard 5
Tas:Social responsibility — Understanding the past and creating preferred futures
Vic:History Level 6, 6.2
WA:Time, continuity and change — Early adolescence

Context / Background Information

Sir Marcus Oliphant was born in 1901 near Adelaide, South Australia.

He studied physics and researched under the famous nuclear physicist, Sir Ernest Rutherford, in England.

Following the onset of the Second World War, Oliphant's research focus changed to support the war effort. Initially, he was in charge of a team that successfully developed microwave radar. Then, in November 1943, Oliphant moved to the USA to work on the Manhattan Project — the development of the first atomic bomb. Nazi Germany was at the point of developing its own atom bomb and so the race was on. Initially, the bomb was developed for use against Nazi Germany; but after their surrender before the bomb was ready, it was used to force the Japanese to surrender. Two bombs were dropped in August 1945 with devastating results — one on Hiroshima and the other on Nagasaki. They remain the only two atomic bombs ever used in warfare.

Despite being part of the team that developed the atom bomb, after the war Oliphant returned to Australia, where he publicly opposed the development of atomic weapons as a misuse of atomic power. "'I suddenly realised that anybody who has a nuclear reactor can extract the plutonium from the reactor and make nuclear weapons, so that a country which has a nuclear reactor can, at any moment that it wants to, become a nuclear weapons power. And I, right from the beginning, have been terribly worried by the existence of nuclear weapons and very much against their use."

On his return to Australia Oliphant became the first Director of the Australian National University's Research School of Physical Sciences. After retiring from the ANU in 1967, Oliphant became the State Governor of South Australia in 1971.

Sir Marcus Oliphant retired to Canberra in 1976 and died in 2000.

Discussion Pointers

  1. What does the video clip show?
  2. Sir Marcus Oliphant is associated with possibly the most significant event of the 20th century. What is his attitude to it?
  3. What is the issue that he cannot reconcile?
  4. What are your impressions of this scientist?

Suggested Classroom Activities

  1. Research the issue of whether the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 were necessary to stop the war, or were done for some other reason.
  2. Many people believe Hiroshima Day ought to be commemorated in Australia as a significant national day. Prepare a case for or against such a commemoration.

Modules That Use This Clip

Science Year 11-12, SOSE/HSIE Year 9-10, English Year 11-12